Vietnamese fold bellied pigs belong to the breed of domestic pigs. The first individuals were bred in Vietnam, where the name came from. By the end of the 20th century, their active distribution began in Europe and America, and subsequently throughout the world. The breed has successfully taken root in Russia. The unpretentiousness and convenient conditions for keeping piglets made them popular among farmers.
Vietnamese fold bellied pigs: features and advantages of the breed
Piglets are called bell-bellied because of the large hanging abdomen, which stands out against the background of small short legs. The characteristic color is black, but individuals of white and marble color are found. The muzzle is slightly flattened, the ears are small, there are a large number of folds on the stigma, which gives the animal a good-natured appearance.
Vietnamese fold bellied pigs are calm in nature. They do not destroy fences and even give in to training. The advantages of this breed include:
- Low food costs. The main diet is plant food.
- Accuracy and cleanliness. Animals strictly separate the living area and the toilet. In places where they are kept, there is usually no specific smell characteristic of ordinary pigsties.
- Small size of individuals. This allows animals to be compactly placed in a limited space.
- Sustainable immunity. Piglets practically do not get sick; they tolerate climatic changes and temperature changes well.
- Early puberty. Already in 4 - 5 months the animals are ready to reproduce offspring.
- High fecundity. The sow is able to bring 11 to 18 piglets at a time. Farrowing is possible twice a year.
- The meat of this breed is more juicy, tender, has a low fat content.
What to look for when buying piglets
In order for the advantages of keeping these animals to be fully apparent, great attention must be paid to the choice of piglets.
It is better to buy animals from several sellers. This will avoid future family breeding, which contributes to the development of weak genes, mutations and infertility.
It is advisable to see the sow. Her appearance will help determine the age of the pig. If farrowing was recently, the pig looks emaciated and has saggy nipples.
A healthy piglet has an elastic body, strong legs, well-developed muscles, bends of the nasal bones are clearly visible. The coat should be even and dry under the tail. Piglets are mobile and have a good appetite. It is necessary to find out how much the piglet weighed at birth, the diet, so that in the future it is gradually transferred to the planned feed.
Piglets can be purchased both from professional breeders and from private farms. Offspring with a good pedigree who have passed the necessary vaccination and treatment for helminths are more expensive. But in the future, these costs will pay off, since the breeding of white-bellied Vietnamese pigs is a profitable business.
How to Keep Vietnamese Piglets
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Before getting animals of this breed, it is necessary to prepare a special room for them.
Conditions of detention
The conditions for keeping bellied pigs are fairly simple. To grow them, does not require a large area. The pigsty is made of brick or gas silicate blocks. To facilitate cleaning, the floor is poured with concrete. It is necessary to make a wooden flooring with straw, where the animals will rest, and warm themselves in cold weather.
The room should have good ventilation, but without drafts. For females and newborn piglets in the winter, it is necessary to maintain an air temperature of about 20 ° C.
In the warm season, animals should have a territory for walking. A small pool of mud will allow you to cool in the heat and get rid of blood-sucking insects.
How to feed Vietnamese piglets
It is necessary to feed animals at home so that fast weight gain occurs. In the first 2 weeks of life, they feed mainly on mother's milk, but already in this period it is necessary to introduce complementary foods. Piglets are born with a minimum supply of nutrients. Eating only milk reduces the iron content in the blood, which leads to anemia and the death of offspring. For this reason, many farmers give piglets vaccinated with iron and copper.
In the first 5 to 10 days, it is necessary to gradually add cow's milk to the food. It is more fat. Therefore, starting lure, make a mixture of 1 liter of milk and 2 chicken eggs. The pig’s stomach is small, it eats in small portions, about 8 times a day. At the same time, charcoal, chalk or clay and clean water are placed in the feeder. The next product should be mashed carrots and green grass.
In the third week, it is necessary to introduce thick porridge into the diet. Granular feed is best mixed with boiled potatoes and mashed. You can feed the beets. Porridge and vegetables are best served in separate bowls. Each new product can be introduced no more than one day later.
By the end of the first month of life, piglets should completely switch to the diet of adults. In order for this process to go painlessly, within 4 to 5 days, the volume of milk consumed by the pigs is reduced, and communication with the sow is limited. Then it is transferred to the other end of the pigsty, behind the septum, and the young growth is kept under observation in the usual place. If the nutrition at this stage was balanced, the weight of the piglet during this period increases by 5 times.
Piglets care from the first minutes of life ensures success in their further breeding. Vietnamese sows have a strong maternal instinct and are very kind to their offspring. After birth, piglets are placed near the mother, immediately applied to the nipples to feed colostrum. Keeping pigs with pigs should be arranged separately from other animals.
Piglets are very mobile. On the 4th day after birth, they can begin to be released into the pen, gradually increasing the time spent. In the summer, it is desirable to provide animals with green grass walking. Piglets walk with their mother and pluck grass. For proper organization of the diet, such a graze should be about 6 hours in time.
The main diseases, their treatment and prevention
Diseases of Vietnamese bellied pigs are the result of violations of sanitary standards when they are kept. Animals of this breed are sick quite rarely, as they have strong immunity. But if the process still started, you should immediately seek help from a veterinarian who specializes in treating such pigs. It is possible to determine that an animal has health problems by the following signs:
- the appearance of discharge from the nose or eyes;
- blood streaks in excrement, diarrhea;
- damage and swelling on the skin;
- weight loss or severe obesity in a short period of time.
The most common disease is parasite infection. Different types of helminths can cause ascariasis, trematodosis, cestodosis, acanthocephalosis, strongyloidosis. Treatment is carried out with anthelmintic drugs. For this period, the animal must be isolated from other individuals in order to avoid infection.
Poor food and the presence of rodents in the pen can lead to a disease such as salmonellosis. Basically, pigs of 4 - 5 months are subject to it. For treatment, a special serum from antibiotics and sulfonamides is used.
Vietnamese piglet feeding rates
Erysipelas is a dangerous infectious disease for all pigs. It is transmitted from birds, insects, mice through feed and water. In acute form, it causes fever, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, which leads to rapid death of the animal. Treatment consists in taking anti-aging serum and antibiotics.
With the plague of at least one pig, the entire population is subject to complete destruction. This disease is not treatable.
Besides, Vietnamese fold pigs may be prone to the following diseases:
Animal diseases can be dangerous not only for the whole herd, but also for humans.
Prevention of all diseases is the timely cleaning of places of detention, the destruction of rodents, a balanced diet. On the recommendation of a specialist, you can draw up a vaccination calendar in order to vaccinate on time.
What you need to know about pregnancy, childbirth and raising Vietnamese pigs
Pregnancy in Vietnamese sows lasts about 4 months. During pregnancy, they become calmer and gain weight intensively. A couple of days before birth, the nipples swell, the abdomen falls. The pig begins to equip its place, sorting out the litter, worries. On the day of farrowing, she refuses to eat, colostrum appears in the nipples.
It is necessary to prepare for the appearance of piglets. In the corral they remove all unnecessary, make the litter from a thick layer of soft straw. If childbirth occurs in the winter, additional heating is needed. Usually sows do it themselves, but the process still needs to be controlled. Nearby should be a first-aid kit, scissors, threads, dry cloth.
Childbirth lasts about 3 to 5 hours. Newborn piglets are cleaned of mucus, release the airways, apply to the nipples. The process ends with the release of the placenta, which must be removed immediately so that the pig does not eat it.
After birth, the sow needs additional care and enhanced feeding. Her food should be liquid on the first day. After a day, you can give regular feed, but in an increased volume. The pig basically lies and moves only along the corral. You can let her out for walk in 4 days.
If the piglets do not receive proper nutrition, additional feeding must be provided. In the first 3 days, you can attach them to another farrowing pig or give cow's milk. The successful development of the pig in the future depends on this.
Monthly weight of Vietnamese piglets
A newborn piglet weighs 400 - 600 grams. After 10 days, its weight is close to a kilogram.
Monthly piglets weigh on average about 2–3 kg, but large individuals weighing up to 5–6 kg are found.
At 3 months, the piglet gains about 25 kg. By 4 months, the weight reaches 35 - 40 kg. If piglets are bred for slaughter, then keeping them longer is not cost-effective. With a well-formed diet during this period, animals gain in weight mainly meat, and after 40 kg they begin to accumulate fat.
Weight at 7 months is approximately 60 kg. At the age of 10 months, piglets can weigh 70 - 80 kg. The average weight at the age of one year is 90 - 110 kg.
Feeding and keeping animals in winter
Vietnamese pigs tolerate winter well. The pigsty can be insulated with wood, close up all the cracks, add straw to the litter. For keeping sows and piglets, additional heating is required. For this purpose, you can use a Russian stove or safe heaters. Animals should spend some time in the fresh air daily.
In winter, pigs are transferred to a three-day diet, by introducing additional daily feeding. The main share in the diet is hay and feed. As juicy food, you can use pre-prepared vegetables, such as pumpkin and carrots. To provide animals with additional nutrients, mineral supplements and vitamins are introduced into the feed.
Vietnamese piglets: care
At present, the growing of Vietnamese loose-bellied pigs is becoming increasingly popular and becoming a profitable business for farmers. The meat of this breed is very tasty, tender, and the maintenance and care is much simpler than with ordinary pigs.