Calla is a classic representative of the Aroid, indigenous inhabitants of Africa and other hot corners of our planet. The tropics are the natural habitat of this culture, while the flower prefers to grow near ponds and marshes, where air and soil are rich in moisture. The popularity of this plant among lovers of indoor and garden flowers is growing from year to year, and this is no accident, because callas, despite their modest appearance, are able to completely transform the corner assigned to them.
Calla is known among flower growers as zantedechia or Lily, and in Russia it is called the wing-wing, due to the peculiar shape and color of the flower. The leaves of all varieties are similar in shape and are arrow-shaped large plates on elongated petioles. In most species, the leaf is glossy, bright green, juicy and therefore a little fragile. Some varieties of calla lilies are distinguished by the colorful color of the leaves.
The inflorescences of this culture are single, in the form of an ears with a funnel-shaped blanket-leaf. The inflorescence is located on the peduncle, the length of which exceeds the length of the petioles at the leaves. The color of the bedspread in nature is usually white, however, colored callas are common in culture, the cover of which can be purple, yellow, peach, pink or even lilac. After pollination, the flower, regardless of variety and subspecies, turns green.
Species and varieties
In nature, at least a dozen plants are found, united by the name Calla, but in a cultivated form, you can meet no more than five varieties of this decorative beauty. At the same time, amateurs distinguish them solely by the color of the sheet-bedspread. Well, the more sophisticated people in this matter, of course, know that White callas differ from color ones not only in the size and color of the flower, but also in the requirements for the environment and many others:
- white calla lilies are hygrophilous, and colored callas calmly relate to dry soil and air;
- whites at rest retain leaves, and colored ones completely discard;
- white - rhizome, and colored in most cases, tuberous.
How to grow calla lilies
These and other factors affect the ability of various types of callas to adaptability and survival in indoor cultivation and in the garden. Among the most popular among flower growers, the following types can be mentioned:
|View name||External Description||Growing conditions|
|Calla Ethiopian||Tall species with leaf petioles growing up to 1 m in length. The ground part is preserved even at rest, the underground is a compact branched rhizome. It blooms mainly in white or green, depending on the variety||Likes partial shade and plenty of moisture in the soil and air. It tolerates fluctuations in temperature, but even with short-term cold snap can die. Ideal for decorating the coastal area of garden ponds, looks good near fountains and other decorative ponds|
|Calla Remann||The average height of the plant with green leaves is about 30 cm long. The flowers are small, red, pink or burgundy. Underground part - tuber||Leaf growth begins in the spring, for the winter the plant discards leaves and goes on vacation. Prefers dry places with diffused light. Looks good in group plantings with plants up to 50 cm high.|
|Calla Eliott||The species is represented by plants with variegated leaf blades and yellow-green inflorescences. The plant itself is low, leaves are heart-shaped, the underground part is in the form of a tuber||They like bright places, but cannot stand long heating in direct sunlight. The species is good in mass plantings with plants whose leaves are colored uniformly. This species can be planted alone near garden sculptures and as a lower tier in shrubs with a sparse crown|
Calla spotted, joyful, fragrant and powerful is also found in nature. Unfortunately, they do not represent decorative value for Russian flower growers. But even among the three species that are successfully bred in the middle and northern latitudes, there are surprisingly beautiful specimens that even the most sophisticated lover of these flowers will certainly want to grow at home. Breeders from Europe and Asia have put a lot of effort into breeding about a dozen varieties, the "parents" of which are the above species.
The most popular representatives of the small calla family:
|Nicolai||Very tall plant (1.5 m) with dark green leaves and green large flowers, the diameter of which exceeds 10 cm. A typical street calla that looks great and grows in open ground|
|Pearls||Tall, up to one and a half meters plant, with light heart-shaped leaves. The flowers are white, with a slight greenish bloom on the back. Potted culture, but can be grown in open ground|
|Schone zweibruckerin||A plant up to 1 meter high with light heart-shaped leaves and flowers of dark green color with a slight light waxy bloom. The diameter of the flower bed reaches 15 cm. This variety can be grown in a pot and in open ground.|
|Green goddess||One of the most beautiful varieties, famous for its unusually large and bright green funnel-shaped flowers. It grows to 90 cm in height, is good in open ground and in pot culture, as a room form|
|Chameleon||Potty low calla lily with incredibly beautiful peach-golden flowers|
|Evening party||A unique variety with dark flowers, which can be black-blue or black-lilac, sometimes a purple border is visible on the flowers|
|Indian summer||Compact plant with a very bright flower-bedspread of bright red color with a pomegranate coating|
|Mango||Compact variety with a bright red coverlet, on which yellowish strokes are dazzled|
|Captain chelsea||A plant with small leaf sizes and a fairly large flower of purple color, decorated with a yellow border, and occasionally - red-purple spots on the edge of the flower|
|Bolero||A small bush with bright green leaves and a rich raspberry flower with a dark pink base|
In almost all of the described varieties, the cob with seeds is colored yellow. However, there are specimens with other color options. Nevertheless, after flowering and setting seeds, the ear of all varieties looks green or yellowish-green.
Choosing a Place for Calla
Calla, both tuberous and rhizome, prefers to grow in a well-lit area. At the same time, diffused light is more suitable for her. If you grow it at home, you can put the pot on the window with a western, eastern or southeast orientation. On southern windows, it is advisable to place the flower next to the window, behind a light tulle curtain, for example.
Bright light of the rhizome calla, which does not shed leaves for the winter, is also required after flowering. In order to provide it with the right amount of light, light sources with a radiation intensity of at least 700 lux are installed next to it. Lamps will also be required in the case when the grower wants to make the bulbs start growing after a short rest.
When growing in a country house in open ground, it is recommended to plant the plant in well-lit areas with little shading in the afternoon hours. Just like a room form, a street one does not tolerate direct sunlight and sharp fluctuations in air temperature. To avoid the occurrence of traumatic factors, it is recommended to choose elevated places for planting, protected from the north by buildings or other crops.
The temperature regime for the plant
The ideal temperature for active growth and flowering is a range of 19 to 25 degrees Celsius. In this case, the difference between day and night temperatures positively affects the ability of the bulb to form a flower bud. Tuberous colored varieties during active flowering contain at a temperature of 26 to 28 degrees, and watering is temporarily stopped or reduced to a minimum. White rhizome callas, on the contrary, bloom better at a temperature of 19-21 degrees. After flowering, they need to rest in very cool (for tropical crops) conditions - at a temperature of 11 to 14 degrees.
Important! The temperature can in no case fall below 10 degrees Celsius. Under such conditions, the plant may die.
In rhizome and tuberous varieties, the need for air humidity is different. So, a plant grown from a bulb and having colored bedspreads needs average moisture, the level of which reaches 60%. To ensure such conditions for colored calla, it is enough to wipe its leaves daily with a damp sponge (when growing a plant in a pot in the room) or spray leaves from a nozzle with a fine spray (when growing in open ground).
White calla lilies prefer to grow in conditions of high humidity - up to 80%. At the same time, it is recommended to plant garden flowers near decorative ponds, streams and artificial waterfalls. If this is not possible, it is possible to place containers with water between them or to often moisten the air around them from irrigators. At home, white calla is content with moisture evaporating from a pan with expanded clay and water, or from water plates placed next to it.
Care: watering and feeding
Caring for a flower is relatively simple, and with a clear understanding of its needs is not difficult even for beginner gardeners. It is important to remember that before the next watering, the soil in the pot should dry well. It is especially necessary to closely monitor this if you decide to grow colored varieties. In the spring, during the period of growth and formation of the cobs in which seeds will be formed, the calla needs weekly watering. After the cover turns green, tuber varieties should be watered to a minimum.
White callas, on the contrary, require a large amount of moisture in the soil, but with the condition that the water does not stagnate. To do this, it is recommended to plant them in well-drained soil. When growing in a pot, it is recommended to drain excess water from the pan so that the rhizome is not affected by rot.
In parallel with watering once a month, you can feed the flowers with complex fertilizers for aroid or organics. Experienced flower growers recommend alternating two types of dressing, and also alternately apply fertilizer by root and non-root methods. When flowering begins, several crystals of citric acid are added to the water for irrigation. It is believed that acidification of the soil will contribute to a brighter and lush flowering.
Planting plants is necessary taking into account the structure of their root system. So, for tuber calla, it is better to select pots with a volume of not more than 3 liters. At the bottom it is necessary to lay a sufficiently thick layer of expanded clay crumb or other drainage. The soil is made up of sheet soil, a small amount of sand and humus, however, it is better to use the mixture for aroid ones. It already has the required amount of nutrients, and the structure has good air and water permeability.
Tubers are placed to a depth of not more than 5 cm, while about 1-2 cm of large, calcined sand is poured onto the surface of the soil where its bottom will be located. This will prevent bulb decay. The root itself must be on the surface of the soil, that is, it does not need to be filled up. As the first leaves grow, you can gently sprinkle the tuber with soil, and moisten the plant at this moment with better spraying. It should be watered not earlier than 2 weeks after planting, and only along the edge of the pot so that water does not get on the top of the tuber.
Rhizome callas are planted in wide bowls.whose bottom is also equipped with a drainage layer. The roots can be immediately covered with soil, the layer of which should be three times larger than the diameter of the root base. You can water the plant immediately, but you must make sure that the stream of water does not erode the ground above the root.
In open ground, it is recommended to plant colored callas with pots, slightly deepening them in the flowerbed. Rhizomes can be planted directly in the soil.
Flowers perfectly propagate by seeds and offspring. Moreover, the first method is used not only by breeders. To get seeds suitable for planting, it is enough to leave the ear on the bush, after the cover becomes green. After some time, calla leaves will begin to die, and the ear will become as bumpy as possible. At this moment, it is cut off and carefully disassembled into segments, inside of which there are seeds.
Planting such planting material is recommended immediately, without prior preparation. An ideal substrate for germination consists of sheet soil and sand. Seeds in the shell are placed to a depth of about a centimeter, and are covered with loose soil, which will have to be moistened daily. After several weeks, the first seedlings should appear on the surface. They need to be transplanted into separate pots closer to spring, that is, about a month after germination.
A simpler and more reliable method is propagation by root offspring or a tuber, which tends to form children.
Important! Sharing adult tubers by cutting is strictly prohibited! They turn out to be unviable, as they quickly rot.
To get more planting material of colored callas, you can plant the tuber at a slight slope so that the bottom is on the side, not the bottom. In this case, the plant will grow more slowly, and small flowers will form, but the chance of getting 2 or more daughter nodules will increase.
White calla rhizomes annually form offspring that need to be carefully separated from an adult plant and transplanted into a pot, as described in the section on planting.
Callas: planting and care
Use in landscape design
Large white flowers look great as a frame for wide garden paths. At the same time, between them and the curb you can drop off undersized hosts or even marigolds. Moisture-loving soil protectors will be a good company for them. White callas are magnificent as well as the design of the zone near the reservoirs.
Colored varieties are good in solitary plantings, they are also quite good at shading arrays of decorative deciduous plants. It is recommended to place the plants not one by one, but in small groups of 3-7 bushes. Nice color callas and as a frame for garden paths.