The value of raspberry fruit is widely known, especially in the treatment of colds, all types of tonsillitis and many other diseases. That is why it can so often be found in garden plots. And those gardeners who have not yet managed to plant this valuable berry crop, but would really like to do this, should know some features of planting raspberries on the site. And first of all, the question arises - when is it better to plant this berry shrub in your area? Experienced gardeners say that the autumn planting of raspberries has much more advantages than planting seedlings of this shrub in the spring.
Is it so? And what are the benefits of autumn raspberry planting? All the advantages of autumn planting raspberries will be discussed below.
Raspberry planting dates in autumn
Usually, experienced gardeners recommend planting or replanting any berry bushes in the fall. This is due to the fact that before the onset of frost, seedlings have time to take root well, their root system successfully grows in the open ground, and the bushes themselves have time to gather enough nutrients to permanently winter. And already in the next season, these berry bushes can even please their owners with their first harvest.
But those cuttings that are planted in the spring take root for a very long time, since they are planted already at the end of spring - they wait until the snow melts, the soil warms up. Therefore, the bushes are just beginning to take root, as the summer heat sets in, and such berry plants can slow down their growth.
In the autumn season, the weather is suitable so that the raspberry cuttings, as usual, as well as repair ones, take root well - not hot, with a lot of cloudy and rainy days. The timing of planting this shrub should be selected so that before the cold season the bushes completely "come to their senses", and their root system has grown sufficiently.
Usually, the best days to plant raspberries are the last days of September, or the first days of October. Raspberry seedlings, whose roots are closed, the time of planting does not matter much, in this case, the main thing is to have time to plant them 10 to 15 days before the frost starts.
Usually, raspberries are transplanted in the fall also because it is necessary to wait until this plant passes from a growth state to a dormant state, and in the area of the root neck of these shrubs, replacement buds will ripen. The main symptom of the transition of the bush to a dormant state is yellowing and falling of leaves, which usually occurs in the second half of September. However, this happens only in varieties of ordinary raspberries, but in the repair varieties the formation of such buds ends only in October.
When planting and transplanting raspberries, it is necessary to take planting material that meets the above requirements. Otherwise, the plants may end up with insufficiently formed replacement buds, so caring for them will be more thorough than usual.
How to plant raspberries in the fall
Grade Selection Rules
When choosing raspberry varieties, as well as the planting material itself (cuttings or seedlings) for planting in the fall, you need to pay attention to how resistant they are to winter cold. Also, special attention should be paid to a thorough examination of seedlings - their root system, stems. Such shrubs should have several strong and healthy stems that are fully ripe, and the thickness of the stem varies between 5 - 7 cm. Their root system should not have traces of rot or other damage, and the roots of such seedlings should be at least 15 cm long.
There are varieties of raspberries (Cumberland and some others), which are characterized by low frost resistance. Seedlings of such varieties are usually not planted in autumn in the central and northern regions due to the fact that even when they are covered for the winter, plants can freeze during severe frosts. Therefore, such shrubs are planted in the spring.
If the roots of the purchased planting material are open, it is important not to dry them until the transplant. In this case, the root system should be wrapped with moist material before they are planted in open ground.
What basic requirements should be considered when choosing a place for planting raspberries?
When choosing a site should adhere to the following criteria:
- Raspberry grows well on loam and similar types of soil. Also, raspberries do not tolerate stagnation of water in the soil, so before planting should be drained landing holes. And in areas where groundwater comes too close to the surface, it is better not to plant raspberries, otherwise its roots may begin to rot.
- Raspberry grows on different soils and begins to bear fruit at different times. If this berry shrub is planted in sandy soil, improved by humus, then the fruits will appear there earlier than raspberries grown on loamy soil. Experienced gardeners use a similar feature of raspberries, and, having different types of soil on the site, plant groups of raspberry bushes on them. As a result, the fruiting time of this plant will increase in such a section.
- Raspberries are very fond of sunny areas, protected from strong winds and drafts. Therefore, you should not plant it in the shade. Since in one place this shrub grows about 12-14 years, this must be taken into account if seedlings of fruit trees grow nearby, which during this time will grow and block the sun from raspberries. The best planting site for this plant is the site along the fence. It will protect raspberries well from gusts of wind, in addition, it can serve as a kind of trellis, to which raspberry bushes will be tied.
- Rows of raspberries, like a vineyard, when planted in rows, are usually oriented from north to south. In this case, the bushes farthest from the north protect all other plants from the wind, and the sun does not block.
When preparing a seat, you must follow the basic rule of crop rotation: unwanted precursors for raspberries should not be a solanaceous vegetable or strawberry crop. Also, the proximity of these crops to the bushes of this berry shrub is undesirable.
The substances secreted by the root system of raspberries help fruit trees such as pears and apple trees fight scab, but the apple tree saves raspberries from gray rot.
In sandy or peaty soils should be made up to 10 kg per 1 square. m humus and rotted compost. The introduction of such organics activates the activity of beneficial microorganisms in these soils.
But alumina for growing raspberries is not suitable at all, because due to stagnation of water in such soil, the raspberry root system will rot very much.
During the autumn planting of seedlings, a plot for them should be prepared in 30 - 35 days. The soil is dug up to 2 bayonets of a shovel, before digging, organic matter (rotted manure or compost), as well as mineral fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus are introduced into it. When planting seedlings in grooves, a layer of draining material (crushed stone, pebbles, expanded clay) must be poured onto their bottom.
You can plant raspberry bushes by the tape method - digging trenches in advance. The distance between the trenches should be about 2 m, and in a row the distance between the bushes is usually made about 40 cm.
Bushes are also planted in separate planting pits, the distance between which in a row should be about 40 cm, and the distance between the rows - about 50 cm.
In order for plants to begin bearing fruit as early as next season, the following rules must be observed:
- if during digging fertilizers were not applied, then they are applied directly to trenches or landing pits;
- trench is irrigated immediately before planting - up to 3 liters for each plant;
- the roots of this plant immediately before planting should be dipped in a clay mash;
- seedlings should be buried in the soil 3 cm below their root necks;
- after the seedlings have been placed in the planting pits, they are covered with a loose nutrient mixture on top, which is compacted, but slightly. Then water the plants again;
Raspberry: a selection of varieties
- after watering, trenches are sprinkled with a layer of mulch (humus or compost) up to 15 cm thick. Such a "blanket" will not allow moisture to evaporate quickly from the soil, and also during the cold weather will protect the raspberry root system.